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Another strong king, Josiah c. After the death of Ptolemy, the Ptolemaic dynasty ruled Egypt for years.

Some members of each group still make such sweeping and mutually exclusive claims to complete control of the area, whereas others are now more willing to seek a peaceful compromise solution. In fact, unlike the Seleucids, the Ptolemies do not appear to have been great city builders.

The hill country of Galilee is better-watered and more thickly wooded than that of Samaria or Judaea. At that stage the Romans appeared on the scene.

Fields and fruitThis development enabled Judas and

He left the Jews undisturbed in their religion and customs. The different groups had tribal centres, but they were essentially seminomadic pastoralists.

Phasael was reported to have committed suicide, while his brother Herod escaped to Rome. Their number was increased greatly during the settling of Canaan by seminomadic Hebrew tribes already in Palestine, as well as by many settled Canaanites e. But for the constant attacks launched by its neighbours, Israel would perhaps never have attained any political solidarity. Its imposition was followed by an open attack on religious practice, in which many rites were forbidden.

Fields and fruit groves are laid out between scattered sandstone ridges, on which villages have grown up. This development enabled Judas and those who succeeded him to hold their own and eventually to establish a hereditary dynasty, known as the Hasmonean for their ancestor Hasmoneus. This was a period of extreme oscillations, from the catastrophic defeat of Israel c.