Cell Polarity 1 by Klaus Ebnet download in ePub, pdf, iPad
Here, mutual inhibition between two sets of proteins guides polarity establishment and maintenance. The molecular identity of most important proteins involved in leading spontaneous symmetry breaking have been extensively studied. One of the way, and one of the most popular ones, to study spontaneous symmetry breaking is by correlating it with a type of reaction- diffusion phenomena. This symmetry breaking facilitates the polarized flux and localization of several protein in the polarized patch.
Polar body formation gives rise to a small cell at meiosis. Many of the molecules responsible for regulating cell polarity are conserved across cell types and throughout metazoan species.
The slope of the gradient effectively provides an arrow along the axis. Cell polarization is associated with a type of symmetry breaking, that occurs in the cytoskeleton and guides the direction of growth of the future daughter cell. Here, actin polymerization in the direction of migration allows cells to extend the leading edge of the cell and to attach to the surface.
There are papers in this issue on budding yeast, epithelial polarity, cell migration and early nematode development, and several papers on meiosis and spindle asymmetry and cell shape changes. Yeast cells proliferate by budding, which involves specialization of a small patch of the mother cell cortex and movement of many cell constituents towards that patch, promoting growth of the bud. Before fertilization there is no evidence of asymmetry, but sperm entry is considered to set up antero-posterior polarity and the first cleavage, which is asymmetric and unequal.
It seems to be another example of asymmetry. Budding yeast is a highly accessible experimental system, which serves as a paradigm for deciphering the molecular mechanism underlying the generation of polarity. Polarity is a moderately complex concept.
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