Computer-Assisted Language Learning by Glenn Stockwell download in ePub, pdf, iPad
This represented a step backwards for language teachers, who by this time had become accustomed to using a range of different media in the foreign language classroom. Learners also assume responsibility for their learning, and the teacher is a facilitator rather than a purveyor of knowledge. It also implies more interaction and sharing. They will also be responsible for creating instructional materials and environments used in the practicum.
However, humans and machines process speech in fundamentally different ways. Typical examples are authoring packages that automatically generate a set of pre-set activities for the learner, e. It also allowed for originality and flexibility in student output of language.
Students also control the pace and the path of the interaction. It will usually taught skills such as reading and listening in a compartmentalized way, even if not in a drill fashion. It usually includes a substantial interactive element. For example, with Facemaker, students create different faces by using words in the language to command the computer. It also emphasises that comprehending, speaking, reading, and writing skills are interrelated, reinforcing each other in complex ways.
Following a boom period in the s, language labs went rapidly into decline. The launch of the Web in the public arena immediately began to attract the attention of language teachers. Computational linguistics takes the principles of theoretical linguistics with the aim of characterizing a language with computational applications in mind. With these kinds of programs, the material to be learned may already be programmed in by the publisher, which is more common, or may allow the instructor to program in the material to be learned. It also promotes that the four skills reading, writing, listening and speaking are interrelated.
At first, both could be done only through text. While multimedia facilities offer many opportunities for language learning with the integration of text, images, sound and video, these opportunities have often not been fully utilised. With these, the format is pre-programmed and the instructor puts in the material.
They were originally developed to enable programmers to simplify the entry of data provided by language teachers. It also allows for originality and flexibility in student output of language. Some programs were very imaginative in the way text was presented, making use of colour to highlight grammatical features e. Role changes for teachers and students. But now the Web has caught up.
Most language textbook publishers offer educational software of some sort, whether it is meant to support a paper textbook or to stand alone for self-study. These generally are drill programs that consist of a brief introduction plus a series of questions to which the learner responds and then the computer gives some kind of feedback.
The instructor provides extensive support to encourage these activities. Multimedia centres lend themselves to self-study and potentially self-directed learning, but this is often misunderstood.
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