Pulmonary Disease Examination and Board Review by Ronald Go download in ePub, pdf, iPad
Ephedrine is the only agent that maintains maternal blood pressure as well as uterine blood flow. If symptoms occur under predictable circumstances e. The sound of wheezing as heard with a stethoscope.
The addition of a controller agent is recommended when mild symptoms are no longer intermittent. Chest radiograph is usually ordered as the first imaging study, since it is readily accessible and can give hints of the underlying condition and direct further studies. There may also be a reduction in the diffusion capacity. The response is usually rapid. Vigorous coughing may lead to rib fractures or a brief loss of consciousness.
Pulmonary function tests may be normal or may demonstrate either restrictive or obstructive disease. Inhaled glucocorticoids available in the United States include beclomethasone, triamcinolone, and flunisolide. Hemodynamic monitoring is essential, and pulmonary artery catheters may be helpful for managing fluids and following cardiovascular parameters. If the risk of drug resistance is high, pyrazinamide may be added with the understanding there are unknown risks. Sarcoid has not been found to increase the incidence of fetal or obstetric complications.
Serial study of factors influencing changes in cardiac output during human pregnancy. Those with more advanced disease and evidence of cor pulmonale, hypoxemia, severe obstructive lung disease, and malnutrition should be advised against pregnancy. Prognosis of this syndrome depends on the underlying cardiovascular condition and correction of the underlying cardiac or vascular anomaly is important to a successful recovery. More studies of the effects of new therapies are needed in pregnant women to ensure patient access to the most effective treatments, and to provide knowledge of the risks of such treatments. However, occlusion of the supplying artery from compression by the enlarged pulmonary arteries is very unlikely, due to the course of the vessel.
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