The Rainbow Way by Lucy H. Pearce download in ePub, pdf, iPad
Droplets or spheres composed of materials with different refractive indices than plain water produce rainbows with different radius angles. Also note the pronounced supernumerary bows inside the primary bow. Fog bow Fogbows form in the same way as rainbows, but they are formed by much smaller cloud and fog droplets that diffract light extensively. In case of the latter, the rainbow is referred to as a lunar rainbow or moonbow. Twinned rainbows can look similar to, but should not be confused with supernumerary bands.
Secondary rainbows are caused by a double reflection of sunlight inside the water droplets. The colours are dim because the bow in each colour is very broad and the colours overlap.
It intersects the normal rainbow at the horizon, and its arc reaches higher in the sky, with its centre as high above the horizon as the normal rainbow's centre is below it. Double rainbow with Alexander's band visible between the primary and secondary bows. Supernumerary rainbows are clearest when raindrops are small and of uniform size.
The alternating faint bands are caused by interference between rays of light following slightly different paths with slightly varying lengths within the raindrops. Both arcs have their red side pointing towards the sun and their violet part away from it, meaning the circumzenithal arc is red on the bottom, while the circumhorizontal arc is red on top. Up to the th-order rainbow was reported by Ng et al. Moonbow Like most atmospheric optical phenomena, rainbows can be caused by light from the Sun, but also from the Moon. In theory, all rainbows are double rainbows, but since the secondary bow is always fainter than the primary, it may be too weak to spot in practice.
The reflection rainbow appears above the horizon. Due to air resistance, raindrops flatten as they fall, and flattening is more prominent in larger water drops. Nevertheless, sightings of the third-order bow in nature have been reported, and in it was photographed definitively for the first time. The secondary rainbow is fainter than the primary because more light escapes from two reflections compared to one and because the rainbow itself is spread over a greater area of the sky.
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