The Stoics on Determinism and Compatibilism by Ricardo Salles download in ePub, pdf, iPad
Just as living things have a life-cycle that is witnessed in parents and then again in their off-spring, so too the universe has a life cycle that is repeated. Absent a robust concept of causation as a relation among events, Stoic analyses of causation sound very odd to the modern ear. Antigonus Gonatas was alleged to have been a pupil of Zeno of Citium. Likewise, an external impressor causes the agent's impression, but the agent's nature causes the assent. In itself, it does not mean that we are capable of attaining knowledge, for there might not be any impressions that one can be confident in assenting to.
See Sedley for an examination of their actions in light of their philosophical allegiances. God, through acting on passive unqualified substance, makes it what it is. In short, the Stoics set the bar for knowledge very high and were perfectly willing to accept that knowing was the exception, not the rule, in human affairs. Actions also involve internal factors, namely assent. The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius provide a fascinating picture of a would-be Stoic sage at work on himself.
But this is exactly how I want matters to be. It is this which makes it tensile and capable of preserving, organising and, in some cases, animating the bodies which it interpenetrates. Assent to a cognitive impression will guarantee that what you assent to is true. Salles argues that the two theories are consistent and therefore need not be attributed to two authors. One thing to note in passing is that skeptical scenarios like the evil demon or the brain in the vat did not seem to figure in the debate between the Stoics and Skeptics.
We may be inclined to object that the being round is not really a cause. It is false that you will recover from the illness whether or not you call the doctor, because your calling the doctor, and having some treatment, may be the reason why you recover. If I eat the cake, I do so deliberately.
The story is related Diog. The central theme of Reydams-Schils is that their notion of the self provides the bridge between the ideal of the Stoic sage and the actual world of less-than-ideal communities and families. In a similar fashion, impulses or desires are movements of the soul toward something.
These result when we get or fail to avoid the objects of the first two passions. Humans possess the faculty of krisis, which allows us to consider our first impressions rather than automatically assent to them.
Different sources attribute different answers to the Stoics on these questions. Therefore it is pointless to call the doctor. However, they also hold that there are other ways of appearing in the complete inventory of the world than by virtue of existing.
They do not consider thought experiments in which all our sense experience is systematically misleading. Another modern application of Stoicism is in the field of military ethics.